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Ive Marx

Belgium’s social concertation model is extraordinarily resilient. Social dialogue is institutionally firmly embedded and the social partners continue to wield significant influence in shaping social and economic policy. Belgium is also among the few rich countries not to have seen growing income inequalities. Belgium maintains just about the most equal wage distribution in the capitalist world – including one of the smallest gender pay gaps – and there is little evidence of precarisation of work. The key argument of this chapter is that robust social dialogue has helped to contain inequality. The Belgian experience thus provides a powerful antidote to views that growing inequalities are inevitable. However, Belgium’s labour market is not as inclusive as we would wish and this, too, has to be seen, at least in part, in the context of the institutional rigidities and insider biases inherent in an extensive social concertation model such as Belgium’s.

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Ive Marx and Lien Van Cant

Belgium’s social concertation model is extraordinarily resilient. Social dialogue is institutionally firmly embedded and the social partners continue to wield significant influence in shaping social and economic policy. Belgium is also among the few rich countries not to have seen growing income inequalities. Belgium maintains just about the most equal wage distribution in the capitalist world – including one of the smallest gender pay gaps – and there is little evidence of precarisation of work. The key argument of this chapter is that robust social dialogue has helped to contain inequality. The Belgian experience thus provides a powerful antidote to views that growing inequalities are inevitable. However, Belgium’s labour market is not as inclusive as we would wish and this, too, has to be seen, at least in part, in the context of the institutional rigidities and insider biases inherent in an extensive social concertation model such as Belgium’s.

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Sarah Kuypers and Ive Marx

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Henning Lohmann and Ive Marx

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Ive Marx and Gerlinde Verbist

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Ive Marx and Gerlinde Verbist

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Henning Lohmann and Ive Marx

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Lane Kenworthy and Ive Marx

In-work poverty became a prominent policy issue in the United States (US) long before the term itself acquired any meaning and relevance in other industrialized countries. With the US’s embrace of an employment-centered anti-poverty strategy, in-work poverty has become even more of an issue. This chapter reviews some key trends, drivers and policy issues. How much in-work poverty is there in the US? How does the US compare to other rich democracies? Has the US’s in-work poverty rate changed over time? Who are the in-work poor? What are the main drivers of levels and changes in in-work poverty? Finally, what are the prospects for the US’s working poor going forward?

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Edited by Henning Lohmann and Ive Marx

There has been a rapid global expansion of academic and policy attention focusing on in-work poverty, acknowledging that across the world a large number of the poor are ‘working poor’. Taking a global and multi-disciplinary perspective, this Handbook provides a comprehensive overview of current research at the intersection between work and poverty.
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Sarah Marchal, Ive Marx and Gerlinde Verbist

This chapter provides an overview and discussion of the direct income support measures available to workers. Using model family simulations of the net income and income components of a single person and a lone-parent family, the authors assess the policy measures currently in place in the European Union (EU) member states and the United States to guarantee an income floor to working families: minimum wages, favourable tax and social insurance contribution conditions, and supportive benefits. They demonstrate that despite ample supportive direct income measures, net incomes at minimum wage are well below the EU at-risk-of-poverty threshold. Yet there has clearly been a tendency to implement direct income support measures that increase the net incomes of workers paid at or around the minimum wage. The authors discuss how direct income support measures, in particular personal income tax reliefs, social security reductions and different types of social benefits, can play a broader role in combating in-work poverty at large.