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Jörg Felfe and Jörg Wombacher

To face the demographic challenges of today, European businesses need to maintain and develop their employees’ commitment. This overview will address the question as to how employees are committed in Europe, and whether there are relevant differences across countries and regions, and other regions in the world. Moreover, differences with regard to antecedences and consequences of commitment in Europe are examined and specific issues that have been addressed by European researchers are mentioned. Overall, the comparison of profiles across European regions reveals that, except for Nordic Europe, there are relatively high levels of affective commitment, lower and more homogeneous levels of calculative commitment, and clearly low levels of normative commitment to the organization. Germanic and Eastern Europe show higher levels than other European and Non-European regions (Confucian Asia). Despite the methodological challenges underlying cross-country comparisons, there is converging evidence for stronger emotional attachments in countries whose populations are more collectivistic, wealthy, and satisfied in life. Moreover, many relationships between commitment and its antecedents (for example, leadership) and outcomes seem to be enhanced where an individual’s value orientation fits that of the surrounding context.