This chapter grapples with the manner in which small states seek to mediate in the arena of international relations. After exploring the theory of small state mediation, this chapter examines mediation efforts in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict undertaken by two small states, Norway and Sweden. The chosen cases illustrate the complex relationships between the state, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and individuals in processes of mediation, which are particularly likely when mediation is undertaken by small, liberal democratic states. The interplay between these different actors is central to both the Norwegian and Swedish cases. By harnessing the benefits of these characteristics, small states are able to project power and influence internationally beyond what might otherwise be expected.