Human trafficking is a complex crime that involves a sophisticated criminal network, requiring authorities to embrace equally sophisticated responses. This chapter reflects on the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (‘Trafficking Protocol’), supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime. Specifically, it analyses three directives outlined within the Protocol to support policing and prosecutions critical to achieving general deterrence: sharing information among relevant agencies; law enforcement and prosecution training; and the development and adoption of modern legislation to enable prosecution. The chapter concludes that despite having well-structured information-sharing channels, training mechanisms and supports in place, and extensive international legal frameworks, the continuation of human trafficking implies the application of these measures is insufficient to achieve general deterrence of traffickers.
Art forgeries and fraud have occurred as long as art has been profitable. Art forgers study the methods of the masters to ensure that any traces marking their work as a copy are indiscernible to the most experienced expert authenticators. Galleries, auction houses and dealers often use detection technology to verify artworks in an attempt to separate the masterpieces from the fakes. In order to outsmart this technology, sophisticated criminals may alter their artistic modus operandi to mimic the age and techniques of the originals. Many scientific authentication tests are decades old and incremental improvements have been slow, enabling forgers to study the science to avoid interception. However, emerging technologies using scientific breakthroughs increasingly are able to differentiate between artists' methods and techniques to determine the authenticity of a work, supporting human experts’ opinions. Argued from the perspective of regulatory pluralism, this chapter examines emerging technologies and their usefulness in shifting the power against the criminals.