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James A. Cunningham

Scientists in the principal investigator (PI) role for publicly funded research are required to influence, shape and deliver on scientific, economic, technological and societal outcomes. To realize these outcomes, PIs need to boundary span between different stakeholders. There is a growing body of literature and empirical studies within entrepreneurship, innovation and strategic management fields that highlight how influential these PIs are in creating value for multiple stakeholders. The aim of this chapter is to explore some of the key factors that influence the boundary spanning entrepreneurial opportunity recognition of PIs through a conceptual framework.

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James A. Cunningham

Technology transfer is a key driver of economic growth and scientific entrepreneurship. Cunningham offers a discussion of technology transfer, including the role of technology transfer offices, barriers to technology transfer, ways to stimulate technology transfer, the role of scientists and ways to sustain the transfer of technology from universities.
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James A. Cunningham and Kristel Miller

The mission of universities is evolving, where their remit is no longer to only educate and provide high quality research. They now need to embrace knowledge and technology transfer to increase the economic, societal and public impact they have on a region. This has required universities to become entrepreneurial as organizations. To be entrepreneurial requires changes to the underlying value propositions, value creation and value capture activities of a university, which comprises of their business model. Research on university business models is in its infancy, where little is known on the design of entrepreneurial university business models. The purpose of this chapter is to identify some core drivers for change facing universities and unravel the challenges and consequences which will have implications for the entrepreneurial university business model. Through this, we present a research agenda to further advance both theory and practice on entrepreneurial university business models.

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Maribel Guerrero, David Urbano and James A. Cunningham

Given the complexity of university functions, previous studies have evidenced the economic impact of university teaching, research or entrepreneurial activities by adopting different theoretical approaches and methodologies. However, the natural role of universities in economic development is less well understood than is often presumed. According to the microeconomic foundation of endogenous economic theory, the objective of this exploratory study is to contribute to a better understanding of the regional economic impact of entrepreneurial universities’ activities (teaching, research and entrepreneurial). Our proposed model was tested with a two-stage least square regression weighted by regions using data of 147 UK public universities located in 74 of the 139 NUTS-3 regions of the country. We found the measure of teaching is strongly correlated with economic development, while the correlation between research and entrepreneurship measures is much weaker.

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James A Cunningham, Marco Romano and Melita Nicotra

In recent decades there has been a growth in European intellectual property and technology transfer. Focusing on the European Union we provide an overview of the European technology transfer and examine some of the empirical studies of the European technology transfer, as well as the value of university intellectual property. In particular, we focus on technology transfer offices, patents, and material transfer agreements. We also discuss the impact of university intellectual property on society and academic productivity and the cost of university intellectual property. In concluding our Chapter, we reflect on the removal of individual property rights or “professors privilege” and the implications of recent legislative changes on legal and technology transfer professionals in addition to outlining some future avenues of research.

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James A. Cunningham, Paul O’Reilly, Brendan Dolan, Conor O’Kane and Vincent Mangematin