Between 1975 and 1979 upwards of two million men, women and children died in the Cambodia genocide. Decades after the cessation of direct violence, the question of reconciliation in Cambodia remains fraught, in part because of competing claims over the meaning of reconciliation; but also because of the ‘authorship’ of Cambodia’s past. As part of a larger project that addresses the political economy of Cambodia’s past violence, in this chapter the author juxtapose the various ‘writings’ of violence on Cambodia’s present-day landscape. More precisely, he calls attention to the remembrance of Cambodia’s past violence ‘from below’, that is, the mundane spaces of quotidian life that remain unmarked and all-too-often unremarked. Specifically, the author contrasts the material legacies of genocide as exemplified by state-sanctioned memorials that, on the one-hand, cater to a largely Western clientele of ‘dark tourists’ and, on the other hand, hidden landscapes of past violence that are lived in the everyday by survivors and descendants of the genocide. These latter sites for the most part remained unremarked and unvisited. In so doing the author documents how the current efforts to remember the genocide are bounded; and how this bounding constructs a particular ‘heritage from above’ while simultaneously silencing the ongoing living of a ‘heritage from below’.
James Tyner and Gordon A. Cromley
Seventy years after it was first defined in the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG), the term ‘genocide’ remains almost as controversial as it is ambiguous. This chapter engages with the concept of genocide as both a framework and critique of twentieth-century geopolitics. More precisely, we provide a critical, geographic reading of genocide within the changing context of global militarism, while elucidating the trajectory of this area of research for the twenty-first century. To this end, we ask: in what form will genocides of the next century appear, given the transformation of militarism? The chapter draws on the experience of the contemporary conflict in Yemen to illustrate its arguments.