James J. Corbett and James J. Winebrake
Global and multinational trade across all transportation modes impacts the environment. This chapter explores the environmental issues related to the international transport of goods in trade. International movement of goods continues to have significant environmental consequences, including increase of short-lived and long-lived greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions globally, introduction of invasive species into waterways regionally, and harm to human health through particulate pollution locally. The international community is responding to these problems (arguably more slowly than national regulatory action) and is working to address environmental concerns through a variety of policy instruments, including regulated performance limits or requirements, mandatory reporting and documentation, and/or incentivized performance targets responding to economic signals. This chapter introduces several key environmental issues surrounding international shipping, and discusses policy developments and innovations that may lead to a more sustainable supply chain.