This chapter explores the linkages among sustainable development, limits and growth. It argues that sustainable development requires a shift in the societal development trajectory to pay attention both to environmental limits and to global equity. Only by appreciating the intimate linkages between environment and development will it be possible to open a pathway towards continued social advance while respecting the boundaries of local, regional and global ecosystems. Economic growth can contribute to sustainable development, but all ‘growth’ does not represent real social advance. In particular, growth in physical pressures threatening global biodiversity and climate change must be brought under control.