Jan Anne Annema
Jan Anne Annema and Hugo Priemus
Freek Kuipéri, Marina van Geenhuizen and Jan Anne Annema
This chapter explores important uncertainties faced by cities in designing a charging infrastructure for electric vehicles (EVs), and it provides important ingredients for adaptive policy making. Uncertainty stems from future EV demand, new/improved technology concerning batteries, charging equipment and alternative fuel, and integration of EV batteries as a storage medium in smart energy systems. The chapter illustrates these uncertainties using scenario-analysis of demand for charging infrastructure, including the level of city quarters. Furthermore, large cities in the Netherlands tend to be slightly more ambitious with regard to EV policy than smaller cities, but there may be differences between large cities in different countries, for example Stockholm and Amsterdam. The chapter closes by presenting an adaptive policy making framework, given the uncertainty in national policies impacting on demand for EV cars, in integrating EVs in larger systems of renewable energy, and in arrangements concerning exploitation of charging stations.