Innovations in the medical field are important for society. The development of medicines is expensive, in particular because of the underlying research, and the regulatory proceedings as required. Thus, companies developing medicines seek a return on their investments, and patents play an important part in this. Because of the close relation to the human patient and health, a quite large number of patenting rules have been established that are special for medical inventions. In addition, the scope of patents can be quite special. This chapter introduces the particularities of medical patents and patenting, with a special focus on the practice both in Europe and the United States.