The epilogue chapter summarizes arguments presented in the book around the following research questions: (1) What are the challenges for innovation at the macro (system) and micro (firm) level according to the experiences of developing and transition countries? (2) What is the role of public policies in the transformation of national innovation systems? (3) What innovation practices successfully overcome challenges to innovation? (4) What is the role of collaboration and learning in fostering innovation? Based on the 10 case studies presented in the book, the chapter shows how national historical background and specific traits to various degrees shared by all developing and transition countries make successful innovation more difficult and how learning and collaboration help governments, firms, and other actors in the less developed part of the world to overcome these difficulties.
Alexandra Tsvetkova, Jana Schmutzler and Marcela Suarez
Jana Schmutzler, Rhiannon Pugh and Alexandra Tsvetkova
This introductory chapter sets the scene for the book theme and presents the main book contributions and take-aways. It first briefly overviews the entrepreneurial ecosystems and the innovation systems frameworks focusing on their central topics, evolution and practical applications. It proceeds to highlight the ways the two concepts can (and in many cases should) learn from each other. This discussion leads to the policy lessons, which in general suggest that the systemic approaches to local economic development, when properly tailored to the local conditions and needs, can deliver superior results compared to the “traditional” (usually narrow-focused) policy initiatives. Finally, the chapter touches upon several underexplored areas, such as entrepreneurial culture from the anthropological perspective, social entrepreneurship in the so-called latecomer economies and the ability of the entrepreneurial ecosystems to contribute to the reduction of the informal economic sector.
Rhiannon Pugh, Jana Schmutzler and Alexandra Tsvetkova
The epilogue synthesizes the main conclusions from the book. Keeping practical applications in mind, it argues that the entrepreneurial ecosystems (EE) and the innovation systems (IS) frameworks can be enriched not only by cross-fertilization but also by extending to incorporate a range of underexplored issues and by being applied in unconventional contexts. The chapter concludes by highlighting several gaps in the current state of research that need to be addressed in order to make the EE and the IS approaches more inclusive and workable in various environments.
Synergies, Policy Lessons and Overlooked Dimensions
Edited by Alexandra Tsvetkova, Jana Schmutzler and Rhiannon Pugh
Jana Schmutzler, Marcela Suarez, Alexandra Tsvetkova and Alessandra Faggian
This introductory chapter synthesizes the arguments presented by the book contributors and argues that a broad definition of innovation systems is appropriate in the context of developing and transition countries. By weaving in specific examples from the chapters, the introduction demonstrates the importance of a context-specific approach that takes into account sociocultural context, macroeconomic structures and institutions. Taken as a whole, the book shows how the system level of National Innovation Systems (NIS) influences the way firms and other actors build up competences and learn, while the outcomes of interactions among these actors at the micro level shape the NIS environment.