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Javier Couso

This chapter concentrates on the radical democracies of Venezuela, Ecuador and Bolivia. Couso’s argument revolves around three axes. First, he argues that one of the innovative elements of Latin American constitutionalism has been its receptiveness to international human rights law and its commitment to the Inter-American Human Rights System. Second, he indicates that one of the characteristics of radical constitutionalism has been its staunch defense of the principle of national sovereignty. Finally, he states that the defense of national sovereignty has gone hand-in-hand with a constant defense of two principles of international law: the principle of self-determination of peoples and the principle of non-intervention. Couso then argues that the defense of these three principles has ended up pitting radical constitutionalsim against international human rights law. Finally, Couso argues that the illiberal turn taken by U.S. constitutionalism, demonstrated by the violations of due process in the Guantanamo prison, selective assassinations, and the practice of torture, has facilitated the questioning of the Inter-American Human Rights system by radical constitutionalism.