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Jeffery S. McMullen and Dean A. Shepherd

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Jeffery S. McMullen and Dean A. Shepherd

Drawing from self-efficacy theory and transcriptions of in-depth interviews, we construct a conjoint experiment that we then administer to 54 tenure-tracked assistant professors from two Research-I universities in the United States. Findings from their 1728 nested decisions show that the administrative effectiveness of outcome expectations and time constraints in encouraging highly uncertain, consensus-challenging research depends on the research self-efficacy of scholars. As expected, we find that increases in anticipated credit are more effective at encouraging consensus-challenging research when scholars perceive themselves to be highly competent in the line of research being pursued. Surprisingly, however, we also find that increases in both blame and time pressures are more discouraging of consensus-challenging research when scholars perceive themselves to be highly competent in a research area. We conclude by discussing the findings and their implications for research.
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Jeffery S. McMullen, Matthew S. Wood and Leslie E. Palich

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Dean A. Shepherd, Jeffery S. McMullen and P. Devereaux Jennings

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J. Michael Haynie, Dean A. Shepherd and Jeffery S. McMullen

We apply the prescriptions of the resource-based perspective to develop a model of entrepreneurial opportunity evaluation. We propose that opportunity evaluation decision policies are constructed as future oriented, cognitive representations of ‘what will be’, assuming one were to exploit the opportunity under evaluation. These cognitive representations incorporate both (1) an evaluation of the existing resource endowments (already under the control of the venture), which may be employed to exploit the opportunity under evaluation, and at the same time (2) an assessment of the future, wealth generating resources that must be marshalled (and subsequently under the control of the venture) in order to exploit the opportunity under evaluation.
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Andrew L. Zacharakis, Jeffery S. McMullen and Dean A. Shepherd

This paper examines the influence of economic institutions upon venture capitalists' (VCs) decision policies. We conducted policy-capturing experiments on 119 VCs across three countries, representing distinct economic institutions (US, mature market economy; South Korea, emerging economy; and China, transitional economy). Results show that VCs in rules-based market economies (US) rely upon market information to a greater extent than VCs in emerging economies (Korea), and Chinese VCs (transitional economy) weight human capital factors more heavily than either US or Korean VCs. Findings suggest that, although professional institutions may dictate which information is included in VC decision policies, the extent to which that information emphasized is determined partly by the economic institution in which the decision-maker operates.