This chapter reviews past and current debates in the cultural policy field, with a specific focus on cultural values and what ‘participation’ or ‘engagement’ means. It provides a critical appraisal of the ‘creative industries’ literature and its influence on policy practititoners, tending to the view that there should be separation of the ideas of the cultural sector and creative industries. The nature and usefulness of cultural accounts statistics is extensively explored with particular reference to the core sources from the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). The well-worn traditional externality arguments for policy intervention are criticaly evaluated in the light of modern developments in econonmics. The chapter concludes with an analysis of some interesting current developments in South Africa, and the United Kingdom.
Jen D. Snowball
While most people accept that the arts have value to society, not all would agree that this value is measurable, or that it should be measured. This chapter describes the types of value that the arts can provide and gives examples of how at least some aspects of their value might be quantified. The discussion includes market-based, revealed preference valuation methods, such as economic impact studies and cultural satellite accounts, as well as non-market stated preference methods, such as willingness-to-pay surveys. Cultural economic geography uses geographic information systems to show how the spatial distribution of cultural firms can be mapped to social and economic development indicators. Criticism of market-based approaches are that they measure only the instrumental values of culture, such as the additional tourist spending in a city as a result of a festival, and not the most important intrinsic values that are unique to culture itself. These debates are discussed in the light of the rise of cultural and creative industries discourse in the cultural policy field, as well as broader valuation methods linking cultural participation to quality of life.