The shared economy is evolving and is creating new forms of economic and social development, and the labour relations and labour laws are facing unprecedented challenges. In terms of the subject, the "one-to-one" employment relationship is increasingly blurred, leading to embarrassment in the affirmation of employment relationships. In terms of the object, labour behaviour and labour results all have new forms and new attributions, leading to weakened reasons for the legal liability of employers. In terms of the content, labour relations present an omni-dimensional change, necessitating significant change to labour laws. Faced with the challenges of the shared economy to labour laws, concepts and countermeasures such as the "third type of labour" and "loose type non-labour relation" that are yet to be identified now appear in the application of law. How to carry out the mission of safeguarding the lawful rights and interests of labourers under the new mode of production and labour is a question that requires serious thinking and careful answers.
Jing Li and Li Jianfei
Jing Li and Li Tao
China’s rapid urbanization process has rendered a separation of land tenures in the urban area: state-owned urban land and urban villages under collective ownership. This chapter unveils the historical and institutional backdrop of this phenomenon. It is followed by an assessment of informal housing development, considering the economic efficiency with commercial and industrial land use associated with urban villages. The absence of the state in developmental controls for urban villages is considered influential in the formation of urban villages. Existing studies reveal that the institutional problems associated with urban villages include incomplete and ambiguous property rights, insecure land tenure and unequal land use rights, and the tragedy of common problem in collective land transactions. It is concluded with a reflection on the government’s role in China’s economic development and its implications for understanding the urbanization dynamics.
Jing Li and Tony W. Tong
Jing Song and Lulu Li
Chapter 5 studies mate selection in rural China, stressing local variations, temporal change, and persisting patterns. It reviews three aspects of scholarship on mate selection in rural China: courtship and marriage formation, mate selection preferences, and mate selection markets. Although modernity and individuality are a general trend governing these three aspects, the persistence and revival of patriarchy and gender hierarchy are also evident. In the post-1978 era, market expansion and policy changes have led mate selection trends in different directions, such as increasing ‘girl power’, reinforcing status homogamy, and intensifying the marriage squeeze. Some policy outcomes were unexpected, due to the complicated interaction of family structures, market forces, political factors, and gender norms. For rural people, marriage is not only increasingly entrenched with emotion and affection, but also an institution of status match.