The shared economy is evolving and is creating new forms of economic and social development, and the labour relations and labour laws are facing unprecedented challenges. In terms of the subject, the "one-to-one" employment relationship is increasingly blurred, leading to embarrassment in the affirmation of employment relationships. In terms of the object, labour behaviour and labour results all have new forms and new attributions, leading to weakened reasons for the legal liability of employers. In terms of the content, labour relations present an omni-dimensional change, necessitating significant change to labour laws. Faced with the challenges of the shared economy to labour laws, concepts and countermeasures such as the "third type of labour" and "loose type non-labour relation" that are yet to be identified now appear in the application of law. How to carry out the mission of safeguarding the lawful rights and interests of labourers under the new mode of production and labour is a question that requires serious thinking and careful answers.
Jing Li and Li Jianfei
Jing Li and Li Tao
China’s rapid urbanization process has rendered a separation of land tenures in the urban area: state-owned urban land and urban villages under collective ownership. This chapter unveils the historical and institutional backdrop of this phenomenon. It is followed by an assessment of informal housing development, considering the economic efficiency with commercial and industrial land use associated with urban villages. The absence of the state in developmental controls for urban villages is considered influential in the formation of urban villages. Existing studies reveal that the institutional problems associated with urban villages include incomplete and ambiguous property rights, insecure land tenure and unequal land use rights, and the tragedy of common problem in collective land transactions. It is concluded with a reflection on the government’s role in China’s economic development and its implications for understanding the urbanization dynamics.
Jing Li and Tony W. Tong
Jing Song and Lulu Li
Chapter 5 studies mate selection in rural China, stressing local variations, temporal change, and persisting patterns. It reviews three aspects of scholarship on mate selection in rural China: courtship and marriage formation, mate selection preferences, and mate selection markets. Although modernity and individuality are a general trend governing these three aspects, the persistence and revival of patriarchy and gender hierarchy are also evident. In the post-1978 era, market expansion and policy changes have led mate selection trends in different directions, such as increasing ‘girl power’, reinforcing status homogamy, and intensifying the marriage squeeze. Some policy outcomes were unexpected, due to the complicated interaction of family structures, market forces, political factors, and gender norms. For rural people, marriage is not only increasingly entrenched with emotion and affection, but also an institution of status match.
Jing Li, Yong Li and Alan M. Rugman
Feng Xu, Qiulin Lu, Rui Qi and Jing Li
Klaus E. Meyer, Yuan Ding, Jing Li and Hua Zhang
State-owned (SO) enterprises are subject to more complex institutional pressures in host countries than private firms. These institutional pressures arise from a weak legitimacy of “state ownership” in some countries, which arises from a combination of ideological conflicts, perceived threats to national security, and claimed unfair competitive advantage due to support by the home country government. These institutional pressures directed specifically at SO firms induce them to adapt their foreign entry strategies to reduce potential conflicts and to enhance their legitimacy. Testing hypotheses derived from this theoretical argument for subsidiaries of listed Chinese firms, we find that SO firms adapt mode and control decisions differently from private firms to the conditions in host countries, and these differences are larger where pressures for legitimacy on SO firms are stronger. These findings not only extend institutional theory to better explain differential effects on different entrants to an organizational field, but demonstrate how foreign investors of idiosyncratic origins may proactively build legitimacy in host societies.
Jing Li, Klaus E. Meyer, Hua Zhang and Yuan Ding
Firms and governments operate in broad networks in which the home government and its diplomatic service are a critical node – or a ‘‘referral point’’ – between firms and potential partners in foreign locations. Thus diplomatic relations between countries matter for the choice of foreign investment location. Using a network perspective, we argue that the extent to which good diplomatic relations induce firms to invest in friendly host countries depends on their political connections to home governments. Those with stronger ties to home governments can better access and leverage intergovernmental diplomatic connections, thus benefiting potentially from enhanced access to information, reduced political risks, and increased legitimacy. Such ability of politically connected firms is more useful where weak institutional impartiality in the host country inhibits neutral treatment of foreign investors. Empirically, using overseas investment location decisions by Chinese firms, we find that the types of home government ties (i.e., whether they are organizational or personal and whether those relationships are with central or local governments) and the impartiality of host institutions are both important contingencies affecting firms’ utilization of diplomatic relations. We discuss the implications of our study to research on network theory, political ties, and internationalization of emerging market firms.
John P. Burns, Jing Li and Xiaoqi Wang
Tianyu Su, Shihui Li, Jing Li, Hungyu Chou and Ying Long
With the rise of city science and data science, big data such as records of bike-sharing, mobile phone signalling, public transportation records and open data from various sources, jointly promote the formation of a new data environment, which provides a stable underpinning for the emergence of innovative planning and design methodologies. Also, historical areas in the existing built environment require renewal and redevelopment to adjust to the spatial requirements of the twenty-first century. Given this situation, this chapter delivers a new quantitative methodology for urban planning and design, termed data augmented design (DAD), and tests its application in an urban redevelopment design project. The main steps and two primary methods of DAD for urban redevelopment design – existing condition analysis and spatial parameter extraction – are introduced. The chapter applies these methods in the urban redevelopment design for the Panyu-Xinhua Area in Shanghai, China. Their effectiveness is evaluated from the perspective of planners, officers and citizens. I addition to the academic and practical contributions, potential applications, potential bias and future research using DAD methods are also discussed.