In this chapter, the authors provide an overview of different ways of measuring psychological contract breach and fulfilment, distinguishing between: 1) composite and global measures of breach and fulfilment; and 2) a differential or between-person and a dynamic or within-person approach to breach and fulfilment. Drawing on the idea of methodological fit—which holds that theory, measurements and their analysis methods should all be aligned—the authors discuss not only measures of psychological contract breach and fulfilment but also associated analytical methods. By discussing the strengths and limitations of each method, they hope that this chapter offers a useful guide for researchers in their search for an appropriate methodology to assess psychological contract breach and fulfilment.
Joeri Hofmans and Tim Vantilborgh
Bert Schreurs, Joeri Hofmans and Bart Wille
In this chapter, we argue that our understanding of careers can be improved by adopting a multilevel perspective. We first provide a rationale for using multilevel analyses by describing the “multileveled” nature of contemporary careers, with individuals nested within organizations, individuals and organizations nested within geographical boundaries, and time nested within individuals. Next, we describe the basic structure of multilevel (regression) analyses: the nature of the models and the type of parameters they can estimate, and how to conduct multilevel analyses, including different aspects of analyses such as centering, proportion of variance accounted for, statistical power, and software packages for testing multilevel models. We conclude by highlighting two ‘forgotten’ types of nesting that hold particular promise for careers research: individuals nested within occupations, and romantic partners nested within dyads.