Urban policy is replete with speculative plans that seek to define ‘the city’ while making claims on its future. These attempts to define and claim the city – through strategy statements, urban visions, scenario planning, or multi-decade master plans – but regularly over-simplify their subject. Critical urban theorists note that such claims fail to account for the institutional and territorial complexity of 21st-century cities. Yet these simplified claims play an important role in urban politics by mobilizing resources, legitimizing development plans, and demonstrating governance capabilities. This chapter argues that such speculative claims on the city are a form of strategic simplification: nuance and complexity are traded for targeted claims on urban resources. Indeed, these definitions may not be intended to represent the broader city at all, but rather to promote local development projects. This is assessed with a case study of bids to host sports mega-events like the Olympics. Mega-event planners routinely make discursive claims on ‘their’ city, defining its future around particular real estate projects. A comparative mixed-methods study links the urban futures proposed in mega-event plans to the political economic characteristics of the planning coalitions, across a multi-decade global sample of Olympic projects. This chapter shows that meanings of the term ‘city’ are mobilized as a tool of urban politics. Such conceptualizations of the city are problematically simplified, but this act of simplification accomplishes urban political work. Analyses of emerging cities should consider the political and ideological agendas that are pursued through intentionally simplistic conceptualizations of the city.
David McGillivray, Daniel Turner and John Lauermann
Event bidding is becoming an increasingly important topic in the broader field of (critical) event studies. Bidding contests for major sporting and cultural events attract (critical) mainstream media and public attention. And yet, despite growing scepticism about the politics and practices of event bidding, a significant number of cities and nations continue to submit their expressions of interest to host these events. In this chapter, we seek to accomplish two things. First, we draw on our own research studies into event bidding to identify the principal conceptual and methodological issues that researchers should be concerned with. Second, we explore what the changing landscape of event bidding - especially for mega sport events - means for the direction of future research in this field. We make the case for more participatory, involved and collaborative research methods to better understand the complex dynamics taking place within event bidding processes.