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John W. O’Hagan

This chapter sketches the extent and nature of the main tax concessions to the arts in Europe and the United States, charitable contribution deductions, value added tax (VAT) reductions and special treatment of the income of artists. The issue of why tax expenditures are often not seen as a cost to the taxpayer, similar to direct grants/subsidies, is discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of tax expenditures versus direct grants to the arts are examined in detail based on two criteria: state interference and value for money from the expenditure.