In this chapter, we discuss some of the key distinguishing features of regional governance in the Agder region, Southern Norway, for stimulating innovation, growth and productivity gains. In the EU, regional innovation policies have become almost synonymous with Research and Innovation Strategies for Smart Specialisation (RIS3). At the outset, Norway and Norwegian regions had a solid foundation for implementing RIS3 and it would not have been a surprise if Norway had become one of the frontrunners in implementing RIS3 as well. This, however, did not happen. The Norwegian responses were uncoordinated at the national level and fragmented at the regional level. In this chapter, we examine why this was the case through an in-depth examination of the Agder region.