Copyright law is only partially harmonised in the European Union. Over the last few years, however, the Court of Justice has begun to develop a more fully articulated body of copyright rules. In doing so, it has increasingly been guided by the apparent requirements of the Charter of Fundamental Rights, a development described by some as ‘constitutionalisation’. This chapter sketches this process and considers how far it might be carried. Could it lead to (i) a more fully harmonised set of exceptions and limitations at Union level or (ii) the recognition of additional rights for authors and other right-holders?