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Edited by Javed Ghulam Hussain and Jonathan M. Scott

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Edited by Javed Ghulam Hussain and Jonathan M. Scott

Drawing upon current cutting-edge theories, knowledge and research findings, this Handbook provides an analysis of the interaction between small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), entrepreneurs and financial institutions globally. The contributors consider regional and international perspectives within and between Europe, North America, New Zealand, the Middle East, as well as South, Central and East Asia on a chapter-by-chapter basis. In so doing, they provide a contextualized, up-to-date snapshot of research into entrepreneurial finance across the world.
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Jonathan M. Scott, Paresha Sinha, Jenny Gibb and Michèle Akoorie

This chapter provides an introduction to this Handbook that aims to provide a range of contextualized perspectives on entrepreneurship in emerging economies. We begin by providing definitions of the term ‘Context’ and identify the contexts of relevance to entrepreneurship such as the social and institutional context. We recognize that the theories, processes and practices of entrepreneurship in emerging economies are likely to vary markedly from those in developed post-industrial economies. This perspective is adopted because we consider the national context that shapes incentives for both opportunity and necessity entrepreneurial efforts to differ in emerging economies. Next, we provide some statistics on emerging economy entrepreneurship in order to establish a foundation from which to synthesize some key literature, before we outline the chapters that appear in this Handbook. We conclude with future research directions.

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Edited by Paresha Sinha, Jenny Gibb, Michèle Akoorie and Jonathan M. Scott

This Research Handbook offers contextualized perspectives on entrepreneurship in emerging economies. Emphasizing how national context profoundly shapes incentives for entrepreneurial efforts, chapters dissect the opportunities emerging from various institutions and social practices from the Middle East, North and Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Latin America. This Handbook is an ideal guide for researchers working on emerging economies, particularly those with an interest in global entrepreneurship.
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Javed G. Hussain, Samia Mahmood and Jonathan M. Scott

Access to credit for entrepreneurial women is of interest to governments, academics and policymakers worldwide due to its significant socio-economic and poverty-reducing implications. In the context of Pakistan, financial institutions tend to cater for the upper- and middle-classes to the exclusion of the poor in general and low-income women in particular. Whilst poverty is a multifaceted term categorized as financial (income) poverty and human poverty, financial poverty specifically serves as a barrier to the growth of women-owned enterprises which, in turn, gives rise to their exclusion from labour markets and social, educational and health services. Financial exclusion directly correlates with lower levels of empowerment or independence within the household due to a lack of access to health services and basic education. Such inequalities in access to entrepreneurial finance impact upon women disproportionally, as the proposed interventions tend to be through microcredit programmes targeted at low-income women. In this chapter we assess the relationship between microfinance and poverty reduction using a binary logistic model. The findings indicate that microfinance positively reduces financial poverty; however, it contributes much less to human poverty reduction. The chapter concludes with some observations on the experiences of women in accessing finance and on the role and effectiveness of microfinance to aid Pakistani women’s access to finance.

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Jonathan M. Scott, Javed Hussain, Richard T. Harrison and Cindy Millman

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Navjot Sandhu, Jonathan M. Scott, Jenny Gibb, Javed Ghulam Hussain, Michèle Akoorie and Paresha Sinha

Our exploratory chapter offers contextualized empirical evidence and theory of how entrepreneurial finance supports women-led firms in an emergent entrepreneurial ecosystem within the state of Punjab, in northern India. By emphasizing the social, cultural, and informal aspects, we posit that the Punjab context is an emergent entrepreneurial ecosystem in which informal institutions (social structure, culture, entrepreneurs, households, and lenders) and more formal institutions (such as formalized bank lending and educational establishments) are interwoven and interdependent. Drawing on questionnaires of selected women entrepreneurs located in five districts of the Punjab, we found that women entrepreneurs in emergent entrepreneurial ecosystems possess few overall assets, suffer from weak enforcement of financial rights and the existence of unequal inheritance rights. Consequently, they have limited access to community and social resources. Gender-based obstacles, conventional thinking and socio-cultural values aggravate the difficulties faced by women. Due to their lack of access to formal finance, women must approach informal lenders. For example, a quarter of women interviewed reported incidents of sexual harassment by informal lenders, especially in the rural and semi urban areas. Indeed, one-fifth who were exploited by informal lenders belonged to the scheduled classes or lower castes (Dalits: literally ‘the oppressed’), or so-called ‘untouchables’, illustrating the relationship between their caste and types of treatment and behaviour by these informal lenders.