José Luís Cardoso
José Luís Cardoso and Alexandre Mendes Cunha
This chapter deals with the diversity of readings and appropriations of the work of Malthus in Portugal and Brazil during the nineteenth century. Three cases of reception are considered. The first concerns the comments by José da Silva Lisboa to the Essay on the Principle of Population, stressing the relation between population growth and available means of subsistence. The second case discusses the critical analysis of Francisco Solano Constâncio of Malthus’s Principles of Political Economy in the context of the discussion of J.-B. Say’s law of markets and of the occurrence of crises of overproduction. The third relates to the use by José Ferreira Borges of Malthus’s Definitions in Political Economy and his search for a systematisation of relevant concepts. This chapter also includes a variety of examples of the dissemination of Malthus among Portuguese-speaking authors, with impact on political debate related to demographic and social issues.
Tamara Álvarez Lorente, José Luís Sousa Soares de Oliveira Braga and Antonio Barros Cardoso
Rural depopulation as a demographic and territorial phenomenon entails demographic, economic and territorial imbalances, and serious social problems. Thus, rural depopulation has been the origin of the crisis in the fields, which has led to the steady decline in the weight of agriculture in the economy, and the low income derived from it. In this chapter, we will approach the problem of rural depopulation in Spain and Portugal from a quantitative perspective through the exploitation of secondary data obtained from various official sources, alluding to the problems derived from such depopulation. In addition, we deepen our analysis by making an intra-regional comparison between the two countries of the contiguous and similar rural slope regions at a geographical and historical level. Demographic hardship brought a need to reconvert the rural space. In this regard, we will mention how public authorities have turned rural areas into “multifunctional” and sometimes “consumption” spaces, seeking to correspond to a demand for leisure and tourism in urban populations.