Advances in the biological sciences in the twentieth century have provided the intellectual scaffolding to dismiss the idea that our species, anatomically modern humans, can be unambiguously classified into biological races. Yet despite this, particularly in arenas associated with society, the notion that biological race determines the social status of individuals is resurgent. This chapter examines how cultural security has been and is currently threatened by racism. It draws mainly on examples of racism against persons of African descent in the United States, but also draws on international examples. Finally, it examines the relationship between new developments in genomic technology and neo-racism.