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Joseph Perfect Mrema

Community-based natural resource management is frequently presented as a way to increase local representation in decision-making processes and reduce the risks of corruption. Revisiting a well-known 'success story' of community-based forest management in Tanzania, this chapter reflects on the effects of the capture of such projects by local elites. Despite being designed to conserve dwindling resources, community-based conservation programmes ended-up being captured by patronage and collusive networks. Contrasting with evaluations considering this project a success, these findings point at the importance of longitudinal evaluations sensitive to intra-community power relations. Keywords: Tanzania, community-based forest conservation, elite capture, intra-community power relations, patronage, collusion