Chapter 2 examines the public policy dimensions that impact aviation and the security issues involved. These can be considered at three levels, the national, the international, and the regional. Essentially, the policy adopted by a state can be analyzed along two dimensions, the particular issue area and the policy instrument that is applied. Thus, the choices that states make in defining and prioritizing their aviation issues and in selecting particular instruments will vary. And, though all consider aviation security an important topic, the specific measures that are adopted depend upon such factors as international requirements, the nature of the political system, and relations with industry. Such considerations also influence developments at the international level which has witnessed the growth and expansion of a large body of international agreements and conventions. Though these play an important role in safeguarding aviation, issues of application and implementation sometimes continue to pose difficult challenges.
Joseph S. Szyliowicz
Chapter 7 discusses aviation security in the USA. The US did not accord adequate attention to safeguarding its extensive aviation system prior to 9/11 but it then moved vigorously to confront the security challenge. It adopted various new policies, rules, and regulations that established a new structure and adopted policies that were designed to ensure that passengers could fly safely, that cargo would be secure and that general aviation facilities would also be adequately protected. As part of this effort, it has played an important role in attempting to ensure that its security standards applied beyond its borders. Nevertheless, the analysis reveals that despite all these efforts, all parts of its aviation system – passengers, cargo, and general aviation – still contain various shortcomings.
Joseph S. Szyliowicz and Luca Zamparini
Chapter 15 concludes the book. It is devoted to a consideration of the issues that have emerged in the two previous sections of the book. It begins by identifying the significance of various contextual issues that have shaped aviation security policy and the general challenges that remain to be tackled. It then turns its attention to a comparative analysis of the specific case studies in order to identify the similarities and differences in the policies that different states have adopted, the resources they have allocated, and their effectiveness. The chapter concludes with an analysis of the lessons that emerge and a consideration of what, if anything, can be done to enhance aviation security, nationally and globally, given not only the known existing threats but those that loom on the horizon as well.