In this chapter, we distinguish between an urban political ecology (UPE) of the city and UPE in the city. In doing so, we do not advocate for one approach over the other, nor do we suggest a rigid dichotomy between these approaches, which have fluid boundaries. Rather, we seek to stimulate discussion on the methodological and analytical focus of the field and its potential across places, territories, and scales. As part of a ‘second wave’ of UPE, however, we see an emerging set of literature that captures the broader processes of planetary urbanization and resource flows. We suggest that future avenues of UPE work as a platform to expand its intellectual reach through interdisciplinary engagements.