This chapter argues that the climate change issue is a classical North–South issue using a series of arguments. It then submits that the 25-year negotiation history of climate change shows can be divided into five phases. The chapter examines how the North–South dimension in relation to the nature of issues, membership of the two groups, and the coalitions they engage in, has evolved in each of these five phases. It explains that current discussions and frustrations regarding the ability of the international negotiations to address the climate change problem have to be examined in the light of evolving negotiations and the commitments that countries have been willing to adopt in the past. The chapter concludes that although in the initial stages of the negotiations there was more trust between the groups, there has been growing mistrust of the South with regard to whether the North would like to equitably address the problem.
Pedi Obani and Joyeeta Gupta
Water security challenges are mostly covered in the literature on the food and energy nexus. This chapter however adopts a broader conception of water security in relation to lack of access to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), and argues that the human rights approach could be instrumental in addressing the drivers that hinder access to WASH. Through policy analysis and literature review the chapter addresses the following research questions: a) What is access to WASH? b) What are the drivers of poor access to WASH? c) What are the multi-level human security implications of the lack of access to WASH? d) What improvements can be made in the post-2015 development agenda to address the drivers and the related human security challenges? The chapter essentially illustrates the need to translate global human rights norms into contextually appropriate operational targets and instruments for policy implementation at the national and local levels.
Ernesto Roessing Neto and Joyeeta Gupta
Frank Jaspers and Joyeeta Gupta
Claudia Pahl-Wostl, Joyeeta Gupta and Anik Bhaduri
Joyeeta Gupta, Joseph W. Dellapenna and Marcel van den Heuvel
This chapter argues that water security has many meanings. It addresses the question: will framing water in terms of ‘water security’ be likely to do a disservice to the water governance challenge of the 21st century? Isn’t there a real risk that the term will become hostage to a much more sinister use of ‘water security’ and lead to precisely the opposite effect? It argues that in the context of limited freshwater resources, its link not only to survival (existential aspects) but to economic growth runs the risk that more innocent uses of security at global and local levels play into the hands of the securitization process in which states control how water is divided between actors. Borrowing a discourse which was initially used for primarily existential reasons at state level may thus be risky. So while the use of security aims at enhancing the priority given to a subject by making it a high politics issue, this runs the risk of also encouraging the use of hard power to deal with it.