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Perception of success of men and women entrepreneurs: a social identity approach

Identity Through Aspirations, Behaviors and Confidence

Rachida Justo, Cristina Cruz and Julio O. De Castro

The chapter utilizes social identity theory to examine differences in subjective perceptions of success (intrinsic and independence) of male and female entrepreneurs. The results indicate that while both entrepreneurs with dependents place higher value on intrinsic dimensions of success than entrepreneurs without, the effects are stronger for women and moderated by venture stage. Alternatively, the independence dimension of success operates differently and glass ceiling effects make it more important for women entrepreneurs and stronger in nascent businesses. Thus, sex per se does not account for differences in perception of success; rather, those differences are prompted by gendered expectations of work and family.

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Dawn R. DeTienne, Dean A. Shepherd and Julio O. De Castro

Under-performing firms persist even though existing theoretical perspectives indicate that they should be selected out of the market. Building upon threshold theory [Gimeno, J., Folta, T., Cooper, A., Woo, C., 1997. Survival of the fittest? Entrepreneurial human capital and the persistence of underperforming firms. Administrative Science Quarterly 42, 750–783.] and using Staw's [Staw, B.M., 1981. The escalation of commitment to a course of action. Academy of Management Review 6 (4), 577–587.] theoretical model of commitment to a course of action, we explore and test the factors that lead entrepreneurs to persist with underperforming firms. We found environmental munificence, personal investment, personal options, previous organizational success, and perceived collective efficacy impact the decision to persist with an under-performing firm. In addition, extrinsic motivation moderates those relationships. This research adds to the growing literature on highly persistent, under-performing firms and complements and extends threshold theory.
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Keith H. Brigham, Julio O. De Castro and Dean A. Shepherd

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Dawn R. DeTienne, Dean A. Shepherd and Julio O. De Castro

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Luisa Delgado-Márquez, Rachida Justo and Julio O. De Castro

Luisa Delgado-Márquez, Rachida Justo and Julio De Castro’s chapter studies gender in social interactions and its impact on the implementation of family-friendly policies in the context of community-based enterprises in Brazil. Considering the prevalence of gender egalitarianism in entrepreneurial teams in community-based enterprises, the authors explore the influence of gender on the motivations, outcomes and challenges of these enterprises. Their analyses of the Solidarity Economic Enterprise Database created by the Brazilian government suggests that the presence of women in founding teams in community-based enterprises has a positive impact on the social motivations and achievements of the businesses and on the implementation of family-friendly policies, but not on the businesses’ social challenges. The authors highlight the role of gender in influencing business-related decisions, and suggest that studying the role of gender in social interactions helps to determine whether women can influence decision-making and can leverage economic, social, moral or political advantage for themselves, thus negating their image as underperforming entrepreneurs.