China has aspired to overhaul its growth model by vigorously promoting technological innovation and entrepreneurship. Like many other countries, however, a funding gap constrains new and technology ventures in the early stage of venture development. To address this challenge, China has used government-backed venture capital as an important means to plug the gap. Four super-sized central government backed venture capital guiding funds (VCGFs) have been set up and dozens of similar schemes are in operation at the local levels. Framed in the mould of the Yozma model, fund-of-funds and co-investment have been the dominant models to leverage private VC investments. This chapter provides a case study of government-backed venture capital schemes in China. It sets out to document the background conditions that explain the country’s need for public venture capital, to describe the distinct features of programme design in such schemes, and to tentatively assess the impact of government-backed venture capital.
Ping Zhao, Jun Zhou and Qiong Li
The chapter provides an account of the transition of teacher education from a single-purpose teacher preparation system to the current system where the responsibility of preparing future teachers is shared between normal universities and general-purpose (or comprehensive) colleges and universities. This has improved the qualification profiles of teachers in China. However, quality issues and regional disparities remain to be addressed.
Jun Li, José Sánchez, Jered B. Carr and Michael D. Siciliano
Research on collaboration often considers relational ties as binary or weighted indicators of whether two actors interact or not. While the use of survey instruments, hyper-links, and other methods of network data collection can reveal important information about the structure of collaborative networks, the qualitative nature of the ties that comprise those networks has been largely ignored. This chapter contributes to our understanding of collaborative relationships by examining intergovernmental agreements created by local governments in Iowa and providing a methodological approach that can be adopted by other scholars. Data from a sample of 500 agreements created between 2007 and 2017 are used to examine three broad questions: (1) How are these collaborations implemented and through what institutional mechanisms?; (2) Who are the organizations that take part in these collaborative arrangements?; and (3) What purposes do the partners include in these agreements to explain why the organizations chose to collaborate?