This chapter highlights recent trends in transport development in Asia and identifies priority areas for future policy research. In the face of rapid and sustained economic growth, one of the most urgent research topics is on transport infrastructure planning and development policies. Better methodologies for analyzing both localized and cross-border impacts of infrastructure projects, as well as from the perspective of environmental sustainability, are needed. Another important area for research is the expansion of private sector involvement in the transport sector, and the changing role of government under different models of private participation in transport infrastructure and services. A third area is on policies to address the negative externalities associated with rapid motorization, particularly congestion, air pollution, carbon emissions, and traffic accidents, including policies to promote public transportation and curb private vehicle use. A fourth and related area is transport safety, particularly policies to promote a culture of road safety. A fifth area is on how transport infrastructure and systems can adapt to climate change and disaster risks, including the role of transport in responding to natural disasters. A sixth research area is socially inclusive transport policies, particularly in rural areas where a large proportion of the poor population live. Lastly, many new mobility services and transport technologies are now being rolled out in Asia. As they evolve, research will be needed to define government roles and design policies to manage their impact and diffusion.