Physical and mental health variations are examined based on information in three Canadian data sources: the Canadian Community Health Survey, the National Population Health Survey, and the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada. From the mid-1990s to the early 2000s, immigrants who arrived around the start of this period show an increasing trend in self-declared ‘fair or poor health’. A similar trend is observed among the Canadian-born and the total foreign- born population, but the migrant cohort of the mid-1990s had reduced proportions of respondents in fair or poor health. This suggests that while immigrants enjoy an initial health advantage early in their settlement experience, their advantage diminishes with time and increasingly approximates the overall health profile of the general population. Even though new immigrants are less likely to report having a chronic condition, the proportions with these types of health ailments rise notably over time.
K. Bruce Newbold
K. Bruce Newbold
Despite the broad interest in the migration of graduates, there is little comparative literature in the Canadian context. Based upon Statistics Canada’s National Graduates Survey, this chapter provides an exploratory analysis examining the migration behaviours of students following graduation from post-secondary institutions, while controlling for socio-demographic factors and various factors reflecting employment and education. Particular attention is paid to the type of post-graduate migration, distinguishing between repeat migrants (including return migrants) and first-time migrants who move post-graduation. In addition, the chapter examines differences in migration by type of degree, distinguishing post-secondary degree types including certificates and diplomas, which are typically granted by vocationally oriented colleges, and degrees such as bachelor’s, master’s or PhDs, which are typically granted by universities. Results are broadly consistent with the literature, with the level of human capital an important determinant of migration.
Edited by K. Bruce Newbold and Kathi Wilson
K. Bruce Newbold and Kathi Wilson
International migration has emerged as one of the most pressing issues faced by national and regional governments. The health impacts of migration can be significant and multifaceted, with access to health care often denied or limited, with immigrants experiencing declining health in their destination countries, with the health of vulnerable groups including women and the disabled, further compromised. With topics including food security, disability, cultural safety, and health care access, this introductory chapter provides an overview of this edited collection. It also provides an overview of potential research directions and needed scholarship.
Katherine B. Stelfox and K. Bruce Newbold
Food is not only relevant for health and nutrition, but is a vital component of one’s cultural and emotional wellbeing. Migration poses many challenges to the way cultural and nutritious food is accessed and consumed, especially for refugees fleeing unstable or dangerous living situations. Particularly vulnerable are refugee women, as they face unique challenges associated with maternal food insecurity and caregiving. Immigration to a new host country should offer improved quality of life, however, this is not always the case when it comes to food security. Issues of food security transcend the migration process and continue once in the host country, encompassing a wide spectrum of issues, from a lack of nutritious food to an overabundance of poor nutrient food. Once settled in a new country immigrants and refugees will experience food insecurity more significantly than the non-immigrant population, as well as a decline in nutrition and health as they gradually assimilate to a western lifestyle. Failure to address food security issues for vulnerable populations such as refugees reflects a lack of commitment and poor planning on the part of the host country, opening the door for key research areas that could aid in improving health and wellbeing.