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Kaifeng Jiang

Drawing upon the strategic human resource management (HRM) literature, this chapter provides a qualitative review of empirical research on the relationship between HRM systems and organizational commitment. It introduces the major theoretical perspectives explaining the HRM systems_organizational commitment relationship and summarizes the key findings of this relationship at different levels of analyses (unit level, cross-level, and individual level). The review shows that among the three types of organizational commitment, affective commitment has been most frequently studied in the strategic HRM research. It also shows that HRM systems intended to enhance employees’ knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs), motivation, and opportunities to perform are positively related to affective commitment which may further lead to employee behavioral outcomes and organizational performance outcomes. Based on the review, the chapter provides managerial implications about how to build organizational commitment by using HRM systems and discusses potential directions for future research on this topic.

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Rory Eckardt and Kaifeng Jiang

The purpose of this chapter is to clarify and advance research on human capital resource emergence (HCRE). To accomplish this purpose, we provide detail on several important, yet underspecified, aspects of HCRE: 1) we describe the underlying theoretical mechanisms of HCRE and integrate these with the task- and social-oriented emergence enabling factors outlined in 2011 by Ployhart and Moliterno; 2) we explicate how the various aspects of HCRE – such as task- and social-oriented antecedents, and underlying mechanisms – are connected with, and important to, the generation of human capital-based competitive advantage; and 3) we discuss several specific methodological approaches and considerations regarding empirical studies of the HCRE process. We also outline next steps that are needed to move forward scholarship on HCRE.

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Dave Lepak, Kaifeng Jiang and Robert E. Ployhart

This chapter examines the nature of strategic HRM as a system and draws attention to different models that have been used to analyse this system, such as the abilities, motivations and opportunities (AMO) model, or models of the employee–organisation relationship. It lays out the rapid evolution of the field and its future trajectory. Attention is drawn to four shifts: giving more attention to the different patterns of strategic execution often seen across work groups within a single organisation; more attention to those factors that promote group work; understanding how team cognition, team diversity, team demographics, and team efficacy impact effectiveness; and understanding the linkages between these issues to explain how group-level factors help transfer the impact of organisation-level HR systems to outcomes across levels. The chapter draws attention to the importance of time in HR strategy with more longitudinal datasets, better controls for prior factors that might predispose an organisation to perform in one way versus another, and not assuming linear effects. It blends ideas from human capital theory with those from the field of strategy and a resource-based view of the firm, and how this has led to the current attention that is being given the different forms of human capital and the enabling processes that transform individual knowledge, skill, ability, and other characteristics (the KSAO model) into unique, unit-, operations- and firm-level resources.