Karen Bickerstaff and Emma Hinton
The chapter reviews and reflects upon an emerging body of geographical research that asks questions about the social and spatial justice implications of low carbon energy systems, policies and practices. This is done by linking recent debates about the social and equity implications of energy systems to an analysis of low carbon objectives, policy developments and infrastructure changes. Taking UK energy policy as the starting point, the chapter seeks to scrutinize the spatial and temporal complexity of injustice associated with energy systems that transcend territorial boundaries; the responsibilities, needs and capabilities of different actors across these systems; and the social, political-economic and material processes that drive the experience of energy injustice and vulnerability. In particular, the chapter explores policy surrounding different types of energy systems through the lens of environmental justice theory – specifically notions of distributional and procedural justice, and makes explicit links across systems of production and consumption.