The emerge of the ‘new self-employed’ and the increasing hybridization of employment presents a challenge for political actors in European countries. How do social security systems, in particular old-age pensions systems, adapt to the development? To what extent do regulations at the EU level contribute to the social protection of the workers concerned? At the EU level, social inclusion initiatives for self-employment and hybrid employment seem contradictory and inadequate. At the level of the Member States, the situation is different. For example, the Dutch basic old-age pension system, independent of contributions paid or of work history, proves to be more convincing than insurance- and equivalence-based systems in coping with risks posed by increasingly flexible labour markets. However, the example of Austria shows that a relatively high level of protection and clear, transparent and universal regulations for all employed persons, including self-employed, can also apply to an insurance- and equivalence-based system.