Abstract This chapter explores the main provisions of and the debates surrounding the 1994 United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD). First, the central definitions, implementation measures, and the relationship between desertification and sustainable development are examined. The focus then shifts to evaluating the UNCCD through discussing the effectiveness of the UNCCD and the future of the UNCCD. The review of the effectiveness of the UNCCD facilitates an evaluation of whether the 2008 ten-year strategy, adopted to revitalise the UNCCD, is addressing the key problems of the UNCCD. It also provides the groundwork for recommendations in future research to increase the effectiveness of the UNCCD, as the survival of the UNCCD depends on increasing its effectiveness.
Abstract This chapter first provides a brief overview of the key provisions of the 1946 International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW). These are the commercial whaling moratorium, and the two types of whaling still permitted under the ICRW: special permit whaling and aboriginal subsistence whaling. The second part of the chapter focuses on the International Whaling Commission (IWC). The most prominent and continuing debates are highlighted throughout, as well as identifying areas for further research and development that will affect the future role and the effectiveness of the ICRW and the IWC.