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Kees Groenendijk

The EU and its Member States over time have concluded several formal and informal agreements with Turkey covering elements of migration policy: the 1963 Association Agreement and later implementing instruments; in 2013, the Readmission Agreement and the Roadmap to visa liberalisation, followed by the EU-Turkey Statement of March 2016. These agreements in several aspects differ from the mobility compacts or partnership agreements concluded or under negotiation with countries in Africa. But there are common elements as well. In this chapter the aims, form and the legal character of the agreements with Turkey are discussed. How did the contracting parties deal with the rights of individual migrants in those agreements? To what extent did the EU, its Member States and Turkey comply with the migration elements of the agreements and what influenced their (non-)compliance. The experiences from the cooperation with Turkey may provide insights for the agreements under negotiation with African countries.