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Keith H Hirokawa

Especially in the context of agriculture and local land use, control strategies are critical considerations in a climate change response. At no other level of governance are considerations of home and community identity more pervasive. At no other level of governance are the felt necessities more personal. And at no other level of governance do the citizens feel more empowered. And yet, reliance on land use controls for resiliency purposes is a complicated task. The pervasive and perennial problems that confront local governments as they turn their attention to the impacts of climate change involve financial ability to implement a vision of resiliency, authority to act within a federalist system, and community commitment on an issue that retains enough political controversy to call into question the police power justification for action. Key Words: agriculture, local, zoning, land use, planning, community

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Keith H Hirokawa and Jonathan Rosenbloom

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Keith H. Hirokawa and Jonathan Rosenbloom

If there is a victim of federalism, it is undoubtedly the community. Self-governance demands that the persons affected by a governance decision have priority of control in decision-making over persons not so affected. Through the exercise of federal regulatory authority over local environmental conditions, citizens lose their ability to govern their communities. A federal top-down regulatory scheme imposes unwanted – and sometimes unwarranted – uniformity upon the diverse local prerogatives and priorities that are individually expressed among thousands of local jurisdictions. Local communities are stripped of critical opportunities to self-identify and build a community around their natural environs. This chapter subjects the federalism question to the ecological economics of ecosystem services and suggests that community is a worthwhile expression of values. By looking to the exercise of federal control over environmental issues and their potential assault on the benefits in fostering local diversity, this chapter explores whether imposed homogeneity or sameness at the federal level defeats the benefits of self-identifying communities through land use controls. Our objective is to help clarify the impact of federal regulation on local land use control and to more completely articulate how federal regulation detaches a community from its local ecosystem.

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Keith H Hirokawa and Aurelia Marina Pohrib