A diverse economies approach to examining care work allows us to pay attention to the multiple and complex forms of ‘compensation’ and motivation that compel us to perform this labour. While some of this care work is compensated in wages, much of it is performed in a mixture of complex class processes with a complex range of motivations. The question, then, is not only how do we recognize what motivates and perhaps compensates this important care work but also how do we redistribute the labour of caring more equitably across gender, class, race and even species boundaries. The chapter examines two examples of this recognition and redistribution of care work: the care work of parents using ‘elimination communication’ as an infant hygiene practice, and the care work of the more-than-human in an urban farm aimed at increasing youth mental well-being.
Joanne Waitoa and Kelly Dombroski
Scholars of diverse economies have used community engaged methods to uncover and ‘map’ diverse economic practices in place, beginning with an open stance towards what is present and not assuming that everything will be subsumed into capitalism. Similarly, Indigenous methodologies challenge Western assumptions around grand narratives and deficit perspectives. This chapter encourages a conversation between diverse economies research methodologies and indigenous ontologies. The chapter discusses the Kaupapa M_ori methodology, an approach to research by, with and for Māori, the Indigenous people of Aotearoa New Zealand. Through a discussion of two case studies in Aotearoa New Zealand, this chapter identifies instructive points of connection and dissonance between Kaupapa Māori and diverse economies methodologies and approaches.
J.K. Gibson-Graham and Kelly Dombroski
This introductory essay looks back on the origins of diverse economies as an approach to research, and looks forward to how it is developing in exciting new directions that have implications for action. It begins by elaborating why this kind of scholarship is timely, then discusses the contextual theoretical groundings of this field of study in the anti-essentialist scholarship of a number of disciplines. It introduces some critical thinking techniques that have been deployed to ‘take back the economy’. It elaborates the diverse economies framing and how the practice of inventorying can become a strategy for opening up the economy to exploration, to new kinds of examination and to different kinds of economic subjectivity. It discusses the important role played by inventorying economic diversity in the project of building ethical community economies. Finally, it reviews some of the emerging frontiers of research in the field of diverse economies.
Edited by J. K. Gibson-Graham and Kelly Dombroski
Katharine McKinnon, Kelly Dombroski and Oona Morrow
Feminist economic geography has been a rich site for exploring issues of political economy and gender. In this chapter the authors explore the contributions of feminist economic geographers to rethinking economy. Diverse economies thinking reveals diversity in existing economic practices, broadening our view of what is important and viable economic activity. This includes recognizing and valuing care work and the household, and recognizing diversity in forms of economic transactions, labour and enterprise through which people around the world secure their livelihoods. Alternative markets, unpaid work and noncapitalist enterprises all come into view as vital parts of our economy. Community economies scholarship begins by rethinking ‘the economy’ and the discourses that shape expectations of how globalization and capitalism function. Building on the work of J.K. Gibson-Graham, the diverse economies framework informs the work of others in the ‘Community Economies Collective’ and the ‘Community Economies Research Network’.