This chapter focuses on the roles and importance of the modern financial corporation in the operation of global policy-making. It describes the prominence of the financial corporation as a key actor within political economy scholarship, pointing out that financial corporations are often considered to be qualitatively distinct from other kinds of interest groups in general, and even from organized business. The chapter then delineates several key functions of financial corporations as agents of great importance within global policy-making. First, financial corporations can influence policy through their normal business operations and the structural prominence that they exhibit as a result. Second, they can influence policy through their organized advocacy, both individually and through collective efforts with other firms. Third, financial corporations can play an influential role in shaping global policy through their enmeshment within elite networks.
Kevin Hyosoo Park and Young-Tae Chang
Efficiency gains in transport operation benefit transport operators by increasing competitive advantage. Moreover, they increase social welfare through reduction in trade costs. A popular method to measure efficiency is data envelopment analysis (DEA), a programming-based technique. This chapter summarizes key DEA models used in transportation and international trade research. The authors explain divergent DEA models, such as CCR, BCC, and directional distance function. They go on to cover some of the recent applications, for example bootstrapped truncated regression, to find determinants of efficiency. In each section, they review relevant studies in the transportation or international trade sector. Lastly, they suggest directions for future research.