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Krishna Ravi Srinivas and Poonam Pandey

Frugal innovation is often presented as the responsible approach for countries facing acute resource constraints and inequalities. It is also seen as a very helpful tool to re-think innovation strategies in the austerity-driven economies of the developed world. This chapter introduces the ideas of innovations promoted by J.C. Kumarappa and A.K.N. Reddy in order to contextualize frugal as well as responsible innovation (RI) in developing countries such as India. Both Kumarappa and Reddy were inspired by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Mahatma Gandhi) and his vision of science and technology for the rural context and resource-constrained settings. While the former focused on rural industries, the latter chose to work for sustainable solutions to address the energy needs of the rural communities through renewable energy sources. Re-reading their ideas and examining their innovations in light of RI can result in a better understanding of their ideas, enabling us to re-examine them for their contemporary relevance.