This chapter offers an overview on what roles foreign investments as well as international investment agreements have played in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries, what motivations drove CEE countries to conclude such agreements, and how this new area of law might have shifted the regulatory priorities in the region. The chapter offers a precise analysis on the historical and economical context in which CEE countries joined the international investment regime as well as the basic types of IIAs and their typical provisions they have concluded in the past quarter century. It focuses on the number and nature of the relevant ISDS cases along with their impacts on CEE countries. The chapter attempts to explore the unique dilemma of ‘intra-EU BITs’ posed by a growing network of BITs between European countries. Last but not least, the chapter tries to outline the potentially relevant impacts of the evolving external investment competence of the EU.