Edited by Lan Nguyen and Niall O'Connor
Nguyen Thi Lan Anh
Features at sea are products of nature. The tide serves as an indicator to classify features into submerged features, low tide elevations or islands. These features, however, are subject to change in either height or area or both, due to natural movements of the seabed and also to the artificial interference of human beings. Coastal states tend to conduct artificial interference in numerous ways including land reclamation, building construction, or using obsolete oil platforms to change the features at sea, making outposts for resource exploitation, maritime scientific research, security purposes and generating maritime spaces. In cases where maritime or territorial disputes exist, claimant states also tend to use artificial constructions to fortify the claims, leading to opposition from others and further complicating the situation. This chapter will analyze the legal regime of and impact on features at sea after construction has taken place, particularly in the context of a maritime or territorial dispute. It will conclude, on the basis of UNCLOS, that for the purpose of generating maritime spaces, it is the status and location of the features before, not after, the undertaking of the artificial interference that classify the features as islands or artificial islands. In the overlapping maritime zone, such construction will not create any entitlement for the constructor as the entitlement over a submerged feature or a low tide elevation will be decided upon the entitlement from land or islands in maritime delimitation. Pending final maritime delimitation, excessive construction is not constructive and only results in complications and escalation of disputes.
Lan Nguyen Chaplin, L.J. Shrum and Tina M. Lowrey
The development of identity and materialism in children and adolescents are fundamentally intertwined. Like adults, children use possessions to signal fundamental aspects of their identity both to themselves and to important others. This chapter groups the discussion of how materialism develops and the role identity plays in terms of socialization factors and psychological factors that influence materialism. Socialization factors include parents, peers and media. Psychological factors focus on fundamental identity motives such as self-esteem, power and belongingness. Although socialization and psychological factors have independent effects on the development of identity and materialism, socialization factors also impact the psychological factors. The authors discuss what factors make particular aspects of identity-salient, and how identity salience influences identity-relevant consumption. They conclude with recommendations for future research, identifying potentially fruitful research gaps.