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Lasse Torkkeli, Sami Saarenketo and Niina Nummela

There is ample evidence suggesting that the business networks of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) drive the internationalization process. Network competence, in other words the ability of SMEs to develop and manage key business relationships with their suppliers, customers and other key actors, tends to increase the propensity to expand beyond domestic markets. However, thus far there has been no attempt to find out whether network competence is something SMEs develop before entering foreign markets, or if they only have the need and the resources to do so when operating internationally. The aim of this study is to find this out by examining the development of network competence in a rapidly internationalizing Finnish SME during the internationalization process. Methodologically it is thus a longitudinal case study. We investigate the phenomenon processually in the distinct phases of internationalization, separated by critical incidents throughout. The results indicate that it is only after entering a number of foreign markets that such a firm has the resources and the organizational structure to develop substantial network competence. We also interpret this to imply that different kinds of network competence may be needed during the early phases of the process, as business networks are being developed. We believe this finding makes an additional contribution to the literature, given that the extant measures and research on internationalization and business networking tend to discount these differences, particularly when it comes to early-phase network competence.

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Hannes Velt, Lasse Torkkeli and Sami Saarenketo

The entrepreneurial-ecosystem concept has recently gained renewed attention among entrepreneurship scholars, yet research in regional studies and international entrepreneurship has stayed notably silent on the role that entrepreneurial ecosystems can have in driving entrepreneurial activities in developing rapidly internationalizing born-global (BG) firms. In this exploratory study, we assess the transnational entrepreneurial ecosystem in Finland and Estonia from the point of view of BG entrepreneurs and do so in a transnational-ecosystem context. Using a survey method and data analysis employing an analysis of variance (ANOVA), this study contributes to the literature on regional studies and international entrepreneurship by examining which of the transnational entrepreneurial ecosystem’s structural elements are critical for BGs during their developmental stages and how these elements are perceived differently depending on the characteristics of BG firms. The study thus enhances our understanding of the interactions of the transnational entrepreneurial ecosystem and its role in supporting new ventures.

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Olli Kuivalainen, Sami Saarenketo, Lasse Torkkeli and Kaisu Puumalainen

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play an important part in the Finnish economy. In this chapter an overview of the internationalizing Finnish SMEs, their strategies, resources, product offerings and growth and international growth orientation is given. On the basis of primary data collected from the Finnish SMEs in five industries (N = 298 of which 110 had international experience) the profiles of their internationalization strategies are studied. The firms that can be seen as successful international entrepreneurial SMEs, that is, which have internationalized early and which have been able to sell their products in a number of countries are given the main focus. Also we take a look at existing support organizations in Finland. Finally, recommendations for both managers and public policy providers on how to improve SMEs’ international performance in the future are given.