China has experienced a dramatic increase in citizen protests and civil unrest in the past two decades. As aggrieved citizens grow more assertive in their demands, government officials increasingly worry about social instability. Stability maintenance has become an obsession of the Chinese state, a focal point of attention for its political-legal apparatus—namely the Party committee, the police, the courts and China’s unique petition system. Previous research has shown that Chinese citizens adopt a variety of forms of protest, from everyday forms of resistance (e.g. foot-dragging, work stoppage, etc.), to moral economy remonstrations (e.g. pressing for livelihood relief by appealing to traditional and socialist values), to rightful resistance (e.g. protest by appealing to official ideologies and policies). They lodge complaints at every level of the Chinese government, frequently skipping levels to appeal to higher authorities with jurisdiction over their cases. They adopt tactics that cover a wide gamut of action types, including rallies, strikes, sit-ins, road blocking, gate crashing and street violence, administrative litigation, and individual and collective petitions.
Lei Yang, Danae Manika and Frances Bowen
Previous research shows that organisations and employees usually perform green practices and activities superficially. Those behaviours are decoupled from the true benefits on the environment and very often are symbolic in nature. Symbolic pro-environmental activities are suggested as the representations of pro-environmental behaviours in symbolic form or the symbolic meanings attributed to eco-friendly objects and actions. This chapter aims to establish an integrated multi-level framework with three dimensions: appropriateness, competitiveness and status, to explain drivers of symbolic pro-environmental behaviours at organisational and employee levels. Specifically, the competitiveness dimension includes two aspects: gain resources and differentiation.