Edited by Lena Zander
The Research Handbook of Global Leadership: Making a Difference came into existence as a book project in Limerick, Ireland where serendipitously two happenings occurred on the same sunny day. One was that Ms Francine O’Sullivan, publisher at Edward Elgar Publishing, inquired whether I was interested in editing a research handbook of global leadership. I was. And two, Professor Nakiye Boyacigiller in her keynote speech mentioned how the move from the United States to Turkey had made her reflect and focus on the importance of making a dif¬ference. The keynote brought vivid memories of my own father to mind. How he had, when he worked and we lived in Africa, Asia and Europe, spoken to me, as I grew up, about leadership, and about what was the most important: “it is what you do and how you act in everyday life that matters”. Like generations of family members before him, he would emphasize how a leader should be a role model. Always. And in so doing trying to make a difference to the people around themselves. These remembrances resulted in this book project on global lead¬ership taking on a personal, additional important role – that of making a difference as a leader.
Making a Difference
Edited by Lena Zander
Lena Zander and Udo Zander
Markus Vodosek and Lena Zander
Global leaders need to understand the motivational forces of social relationships. However, expectations of social relationships vary greatly around the world. In this chapter, we draw on relational models theory to explain how relationships are construed differently in different cultures. We describe how four different relational models (Communal Sharing, Authority Ranking, Equality Matching, Market Pricing) entail different social motives which, in turn, induce different moral imperatives. We then discuss what happens when individuals in a work relationship apply the same or different relational models to their relationship. We suggest that congruence is motivating and incongruence demotivating when the moral imperative associated with a relational model is important to a follower. However, if the moral imperative is unimportant to the follower, congruence will lead to functional behavior of the follower and incongruence will lead to dysfunctional behavior. As a guide for global leaders, we created the Relational Models Leadership Grid. The grid builds on relational model congruence or incongruence between leader and follower on the one hand, and on the importance of the moral imperative associated with the follower’s relational model to the follower on the other. In combining these two dimensions, we describe four types of follower reactions when leaders and followers apply similar or different social relationship models: the Productive Follower, the Thwarted Follower, the Acquiescent Follower and the Dodging Follower. The chapter closes with implications of our analysis for global leadership and ideas for research, teaching, and practice.
Udo Zander, Lena Zander and H. Emre Yildiz
Peter Zettinig, Udo Zander, Lena Zander and Audra I. Mockaitis
The chapter is rethinking the role of the university as a producer and consumer of knowl¬edge in the contemporary twenty-first-century context. It questions especially the way current and future leaders are “trained” to acquire standardized skill sets through propri¬etary “off-the-shelf” executive education. To explore roads for enhancing innovation and legitimacy of businesses and the standing of their global leaders, we revisit developments that occurred in different university models over a millennium. The universitas, defined as a community of students and masters, has been a surprisingly adaptive model which we believe can be more effective than ever if reintroduced in executive education today. The resulting “world of learning” draws on traditional university core values of creating an open and inclusive world of learning that is made of an informed, interconnected and mobile community of learners that grows and produces value by collectively engaging with contemporary challenges.
Christina L. Butler, Ciara Sutton, Audra I. Mockaitis and Lena Zander
In this chapter, we discuss the potential of Millennials as global leaders. We introduce our own recent contribution to the field of global leadership, in which we identify three critical global leader roles: boundary spanner, blender and bridge maker. We conceptually discuss how Millennials will cope with these three roles given the four themes that emerged from our review: the birth of the digital native, the rise of the narcissist, the college-educated elite versus the rest, and Millennials around the world. In order to become effective global leaders, Millennials need to work especially hard on developing and managing social ties as boundary spanners, becoming aware of and managing affect as blenders, and improving cultural understanding and their ability to engage in interpersonal interaction as bridge makers. Organizations that understand Millennials’ strengths and weaknesses, and can leverage their skills, will be rewarded with a future generation of global leaders who are able to lead in new ways to make a difference in the twenty-first century.
Lena Zander, Audra I. Mockaitis, Anne-Wil Harzing, Willhelm Barner-Rasmussen, Cordula Barzantny, Srabani Roy Choudhury, Anabella Davila, Joyce De Leon, Alvaro Espejo, Rita Ferreira, Axèle Giroud, Kathrin Köster, Yung-Kuei Liang, Michael J. Morley, Barbara Myloni, Joseph O.T. Odusanya, Sharon L. O’Sullivan, Ananda Kumar Palaniappan, Paulo Prochno, Ayse Saka-Helmhout, Sununta Siengthai, Ayda Uzunçarşılı Soydaş and Linda Viswat
The field of cross-cultural leadership has seen a boom in empirical research over the last few decades, yet there are still few large-scale studies that seek explanations for leadership behavior. Earlier research has provided knowledge and awareness about differences and similarities in leadership attitudes, ideals, perceptions and preferences across countries and cultures, but to predict leadership behavior remains difficult. In this chapter, leader’s ‘action intent’ is proposed as a ‘close-to-action’ concept in contrast to the more ‘far-from-action’ concepts used in earlier leadership research. Importantly, for ‘close-to-action’ concepts to be able to provide better predictions these need to provide contextual and situational cues. In our study, carried out in 22 countries, respondents have ranked their preferred action alternative for six specific leadership scenarios. We find inter-country and intra-country variation in action intent for each scenario and meaningful correlations with culturally endorsed leadership ideals. Drawing on our empirical illustration we provide implications from our findings for global leadership. And although there are no simple answers as to how to predict leadership behavior, we posit that using ‘action intent’ as a leadership measure will generate a better understanding and provide stronger predictions of leader behavior globally.