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Leo-Paul Dana

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Léo-Paul Dana

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Léo-Paul Dana

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Léo-Paul Dana

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Edited by Léo-Paul Dana

This rich and detailed book makes a very timely contribution to extending our understanding of entrepreneurship in its social context. Using selected examples, the respected contributors show how the values developed in religious beliefs and practices shape entrepreneurship.
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Léo-Paul Dana

People with unlike cultural beliefs and religious values have looked at entrepreneurship with varying degrees of legitimacy. The Greek philosopher Aristotle (384–322 bc), a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great, viewed entrepreneurship as unnatural and therefore illegitimate (Aristotle, 1924). Becker (1956) explained that some cultures consider business an unholy occupation. Woodrum (1985) found participation in religious activities to be a predictor of entrepreneurial success among Americans of Japanese origin. Dana (1995a) and Lumpkin and Dess (1996) advocated that a small firm’s orientation is grounded in the values of its entrepreneur. Values and culture shape the environment for entrepreneurship as well as the entrepreneurial event. Aldrich (1979) noted that the environment could provide or withhold resources. From an anthropological perspective, Stewart (1991) suggested that the legitimization of enterprise was a function of culture. From a sociological perspective, Reynolds (1991) confirmed the importance of non-economic factors such as the legitimacy of entrepreneurship, on entrepreneurial activity. Specht (1993) emphasized the importance of cultural acceptance. Cultural acceptance of entrepreneurship varies among people with different cultural values. Likewise, people from different religious backgrounds have unlike propensities to become entrepreneurs.

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Léo-Paul Dana

In February 1858, in Edinburgh, John Gray died of tuberculosis and was buried in Greyfriars Kirkyard; he was survived by his terrier Bobby (Figure 76.1), who is said to have stayed close to Gray’s grave, until he died in January 1872, at the age of 18. In 1884, King Ludwig II took residence in a Romanesque Revival palace, Neuschwanstein Castle in Bavaria. Meanwhile, in 1867, the Austria-Hungary monarchy was established and in subsequent years many Jews relocated to Vienna, among them Philipp Salzmann, the first man in his family to abandon a 300-year-old tradition of serving as a rabbi and instead becoming an engineer (Herzog, 2011). Philipp’s son Siegmund adopted the name Felix Salten, and wrote Der Hund von Florenz, as well as Bambi: Eine Lebensgeschichte aus dem Walde. The latter is considered to be among the first environmentalist novels. How is all this related? Walter (Walt) Elias Disney (1901–1966) was a visionary and serial entrepreneur who pushed the limit of technology to create entertainment magic. Among his many contributions, in 1942, Walt produced a full-length cartoon based on Salten’s Bambi. He conceived a novel type of vacation destination and in 1955 opened Disneyland, a theme park built around a castle inspired by a replica of Neuschwanstein Castle. In 1959, Walt released The Shaggy Dog based on Salten’s hound, and in 1961 Greyfriars Bobby about John Gray’s terrier.

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Edited by Léo-Paul Dana

This second edition of a classic reference work, written by some of the most eminent academics in the field, contains over 30 per cent more entries on entrepreneurship. Comprehensive in scope, it includes topics from business angels, to export services to family business and uncertainty and venture capital. There are also entries on individuals including George Eastman, Howard Hughes, Joseph Schumpeter and Walt Disney. Providing its readers with a unique point of reference, as well as stimulus for further research, this Encyclopedia is an indispensable tool for anyone interested in entrepreneurship, particularly students, scholars and researchers.
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Leo-Paul Dana