Alexander Otgaar and Leo van den Berg
Leo van den Berg and Luis Carvalho
These urbanologists conclude from their research that for the modern city, its competitiveness is dependent upon its social cohesion and it environmental quality. So the environmental, the social and the economic are interlocked in the competitive city in a structure that embraces government, universities, not-for-profits, the private sector and citizen groups. Additionally, the interaction between the project level and the city level create a symbiotic relationship. This is revealed in their analysis of 24 cities in Europe, North and South America, Africa and Asia.