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Ping Zhao, Jun Zhou and Qiong Li

The chapter provides an account of the transition of teacher education from a single-purpose teacher preparation system to the current system where the responsibility of preparing future teachers is shared between normal universities and general-purpose (or comprehensive) colleges and universities. This has improved the qualification profiles of teachers in China. However, quality issues and regional disparities remain to be addressed.

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Jane Addison, Enkh-Orchlon Lkhagvadorj, Lkhagvadorj Dorjburegdaa, Zhang Bao and Li Ping

As the primary grassland actor, the attitudes and perceptions of herders are crucial in determining grassland use and condition, and as such they are a powerful agent of change. This chapter examines what are meaningful livelihoods to herders, and the strategies they adopt to achieve these livelihoods. The link between the grassland environment and these livelihood strategies is also explored, as are the links between the institutional settings and macrodevelopments discussed in Chapter 2, and their livelihoods. The chapter concludes by identifying and discussing more livelihood focused environmental policies.

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Jeff Bennett, Li Ping, Zhang Bao, Enkh-Orchlon Lkhagvadorj and Duinkherjav Bukhbat

The focus of this chapter is on an empirical understanding of the value of the environmental benefits to flow from changes in grassland policies and incentives. There are three main parts to the empirical analysis that draw upon choice modelling analysis and contingent behaviour analysis, namely: the preferences of herders towards alternative policies; how herders would respond to these alternative policies in terms of livestock numbers and management; and the preferences and valuation of those who enjoy the environmental and social benefits resulting from changed policy settings. Where possible, comparisons are drawn between the empirical analysis in Mongolia and Inner Mongolia.

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Colin G. Brown, Qiao Guanghua, Lkhagvadorj Dorjburegdaa, Jane Addison, David Kemp, Han Guodong, Uvdal Gombosuren, Karl Behrendt, Jeff Bennett and Li Ping

The relative importance of grasslands to China and Mongolia and major issues facing these grasslands are described. The chapter highlights the rationale for the comparative analysis and interdisciplinary approach used in the book and how the approach is reflected in the structure of the book.

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David Kemp, Han Guodong, Li Ping, Wang Zhongwu, Zhao Mengli, Udval Gombosuren, Gantuya Jargalsaihan, Zhang Yingjun, Hou Xiangyang and Jane Addison

A description and discussion of herder communities, grassland ecology, livestock systems and animal production in Mongolia and Inner Mongolia are provided. The description includes reference to specific grazing trials. An overview of the modelling designed to capture some of the complexities of these systems is provided. The bioeconomic sustainable grazing model used to estimate environmental benefits of changed production systems under alternative policy settings model, and referred to in Chapter 7 and elsewhere in the book, is introduced. Income and livelihood impacts of changing production systems under different market and environmental conditions are reported.

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David Kemp, Li Ping, Jane Addison, Karl Behrendt, Wang Zhongwu, Han Guodong, Zhao Mengli, Uvdal Bombosuren and Hou Xiangyang

Grasslands provide not only a range of food and fibre and other provisioning services but also a range of environmental services. This chapter identifies, and compares and contrasts the relative importance of these services in China and Mongolia. It also discusses the set of these environmental services in both countries and describes the links between the services. The link between grassland degradation and these services is also examined.

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Colin G. Brown, Jeff Bennett, Qiao Guanghua, Lkhagvadorj Dorjburegdaa, Jane Addison, Udval Gombosuren, David Kemp, Han Guodong, Karl Behrendt and Li Ping

Based on the understanding of the grassland ecology and of environmental, livestock production and market systems in Mongolia and China, and on an understanding of herder attitudes, perceptions and behavioural responses, this chapter discusses how incentives can be strengthened to meet the objectives of improved grassland condition and herder livelihoods. The chapter draws on a typology of environmental policies to examine how the incentives can be strengthened and policies improved. For instance, the chapter draws on the empirical analysis in Chapter 7 to discuss the effectiveness of policy instruments such as livestock taxes or ecocompensation payments to reduce stocking rates, on Chapters 2 and 6 to discuss issues related to compliance and enforcement of grassland policies, and on Chapters 2, 3, 4 and 6 to discuss moral suasion efforts and instruments that alter herder property and grassland use rights. The comparative analysis of Inner Mongolia and Mongolia throughout the book is drawn on for additional insights on strengthening the incentives and formulating strategies.