Globalization in China is marked by increasing social and personal mobility. With student mobility a key outcome of this process, this chapter examines the relation between some globalization indicators and the migration intention as well as transition behavior of Chinese students/professionals in Canada and the United States. It finds a strong desire among Chinese students/professionals, especially those with doctoral degrees, to remain in North America after their study/exchange, in part due to the presence of permissive policies there. In reality, most that remain only enjoy temporary work visa status. The path to permanent residency is circuitous and/or lengthy, if not impossible. Increasingly, more graduates are returning to China, some (including established, top-tier academics and professionals) attracted by government-initiated incentives, some by the type of opportunities afforded by a booming economy, and others (especially those with an undergraduate degree or college diploma only) being forced to accept the only available alternative because of the harsh reality of the difficulties of immigrating permanently. These findings have implications for both the Chinese and the North American side in the medium and long term.
Wei Li, Lucia Lo and Yining Tan
Kelly L. Patterson, Molly Ranahan, Robert Mark Silverman and Li Yin
Chapter 15 by Patterson, Ranahan, Silverman and Yin examines community benefits agreements (CBAs), an emerging form of public engagement and governance related to urban revitalization policy in the USA. CBAs are equity-based development strategies that focus on linking community benefits to private and non-profit sector urban revitalization projects. They exemplify emerging approaches to urban revitalization and governance that involve three distinct interests: labour and grassroots organizations; developers from the private and non-profit sectors; and local government. In this new form of governance, the government’s traditional role in the implementation of urban revitalization projects has shifted to public and non-profit organizations. This shift reflects a more general trend toward the replacement of direct government implementation with shared governance strategies. In their chapter, Patterson et al. review empirical research on CBAs and then present four critical case studies. Their analysis focuses on public engagement strategies and governance in the CBA process. In particular, Patterson et al. compare negotiated agreements in which private versus non-profit sector developers play a key role.