The focus of this chapter is on the distinctive trajectory of performance management in Lithuania. The relevancy of public sector downsizing, customer orientation and focus on results confirms that the agenda of the Lithuanian authorities in 2008_2012 was dominated by NPM-type reforms. The financial crisis increased the pressures to focus on performance management at organizational and individual levels which contributed to a comparatively higher institutionalization of managerialism in Lithuania, for example, the most commonly implemented tools at organizational level (strategic planning, management by objectives, codes of conduct) in Lithuania are obligatory by law. More autonomous and less politicized organizations, agencies compared to ministries are better performance managers. The COCOPS data confirm that public management reforms in Lithuania matter – important links between the application of management tools and public administration outcomes are empirically observed. However, formally existing performance management tools still need adequate support from individual organizations and their managers.